The Evolution of Whale and Dolphin Conservation Theory and Practice
Some of the Highlights of the last fifty years
1965 - IWC implements worldwide protection for blue and humpback whales
1972 - US Marine Mammal Protection Act - Stockholm UN Conference on the Human Environment calls for moratorium on whaling
1973 - CITES signed by 167 countries - US enacts the Endangered Species Act (ESA)
1979 - Indian Ocean Sanctuary was established by the IWC after being proposed by the tiny island nation of the Seychelles in its first meeting as an IWC member.
1980 - IWC bans cold harpoon and holds first workshop on humane killing
1982 - IWC Moratorium decision - Berne Convention - United Nations Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) - European Union (EU) bans imports of whale products - UN Declaration on Nature
Every form of life is unique, warranting respect regardless of its worth to man, and, to accord other organism such recognition, man must be guided by a moral code" - 1982 UN General Assembly Charter for Nature
1986 - IWC Moratorium finally implemented
1991 - ASCOBANS enacts prohibition on any 'taking of cetaceans'
1994 - IWC creates Southern Ocean Sanctuary - UNCLOS comes into force
1996 - Under pressure Japan agrees to phase out the use of the electric lance in whaling
1997 - Protocol to Amsterdam Treaty provides first ever reference in EC law to non-human animals as 'sentient beings
2001 - ACCOBAMS comes into force
2004 - IWC convenes first meeting of the IWC 'Conservation Committee'
2006 - The Pacific Cetaceans MoU was negotiated under the auspices of the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS), in collaboration with the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP).
2008 - The MoU for Small Cetaceans and Manatees of West African and Macaronesia was signed under the auspices of the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS)
2011 - CMS agrees to convene a workshop on culture and social complexity in cetaceans
Host a workshop to review and provide advice on the impact of the emergent science of cetacean social complexity and culture, as it relates to regional populations and to inform forward decision about CMS conservation priorities”
- CMS Resolution 10.15, which mandates the CMS Aquatic Mammals Working Group (AMWG)